Scandinavian literature is, of course, studied in the Scandinavian countries, where the literatures of the respective languages are taught on all educational levels. However, readers and scholars in each Scandinavian country do not necessarily pay much attention to literature that is published in the other Scandinavian countries. Although Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish are mutually intelligible, most Scandinavians read the literature of their neighbors translated into their own national languages. Literary scholars and critics in one Scandinavian country will often pay less attention to the literature of the other Scandinavian countries than they will to literature written in the major world languages. Research and scholarship on the literature of one of the Scandinavian countries, when done and published in that country, is therefore usually written in the language of the country and is not intended to reach an international audience, except for other scholars across the world who know how to read the Scandinavian language in question. Criticism written in English is usually either produced in North America or Great Britain, or written by Scandinavians who publish in English-language journals. By far most of the material available in English has been written by scholars residing in the United States, where there are centers of teaching and research in Scandinavian literature at such universities as the University of Minnesota, the University of Wisconsin, the University of Washington, the University of Oregon, the University of California at Berkeley, the University of California at Los Angeles, and others. All of these universities have helpful collections of library materials. There are also excellent library resources at the Harvard College Library, Cambridge, Massachusetts, and at St. Olaf College in Northfield, Minnesota. Academic journals in which English-language Scandinavian literary criticism is published are located mostly in North America and Europe. Scandinavian Studies, the journal of the Society for the Advancement of Scandinavian Study in the United States, is published quarterly and contains articles about Scandinavian literature and other fields of study related to Scandinavia. Scandinavica, a British journal, is published two times per year and is devoted exclusively to Scandinavian literature. The Norwegian quarterly Edda publishes criticism written both in the Scandinavian languages and in English. There are also journals focused on Scandinavian literature in Germany and the Netherlands, and some of their articles are in English. Journals devoted to other areas of literary studies also sometimes have articles about Scandinavian literature. The journals Books from Finland and Swedish Book Review have as their mission to inform speakers of English about Finnish and Swedish literature, respectively. Many publishers in the United States and Great Britain will publish books about Scandinavian literature if the books are about major writers, such as Henrik Ibsen, August Strindberg, or Søren Kierkegaard, but often only specialized publishers will publish books on relatively unknown subjects. In the 1970s and 1980s Twayne's World Authors Series included a number of books devoted to Scandinavian writers, and these books are still very useful. Unless the writer has a worldwide reputation, however, most current information available in English will be in the form of articles. For those who need only brief factual information about a writer, the Internet is a useful resource. The quality of the literary criticism published in the standard scholarly journals is uniformly high. Fortunately some excellent literary histories of the Scandinavian countries are available. Edited by Sven Rossel (Denmark), George Schoolfield (Finland), Harald Naess (Norway), and Lars Warme (Sweden), these literary histories were published by the University of Nebraska Press in the 1990s and have individual chapters written by the foremost specialists in the field. The volume for Iceland is scheduled to appear in 2006. Somewhat different from the literary histories, but no less useful, are several volumes devoted to Scandinavia in the series Dictionary ofLiterary Biography. Consisting of essays written by specialists mostly from the Scandinavian countries and the United States, volumes concerning Denmark (edited by Marianne Stecher-Hansen), Iceland (edited by Patrick J. Stevens), Norway (edited by Tanya Thresher), and Sweden (edited by Ann-Charlotte Gavel Adams) have thus far appeared. Another excellent resource is Virpi Zuck, Niels Ingwersen, and Harald S. Naess, eds., Dictionary of Scandinavian Literature (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1990). This volume is not entirely current, but it is nevertheless a very helpful resource for those who need brief and factual information rather than extensive background essays. The present bibliography is organized into six sections. The first section, "General Scandinavian Literary History and Criticism," is relatively briefand lists books and articles that address more than one or two Scandinavian countries. This general section is followed by a section for each Scandinavian country: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Each of these is divided into "Bibliographic Resources," "Literary History and Criticism," the titles in which address the literature of the specific country, and "Select Bibliography for Specific Writers," in which writers from the country in question are listed alphabetically with information about books and articles that discuss them. Most of the references are to works published during the past two or three decades. For those who wish a brief but thorough overview of classical Scandinavian literature, Sven Rossel, A History of Scandinavian Literature, 1870-1980 (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1982), has much to recommend it. Although well over twenty years old, it offers a useful overview of the field and can be supplemented by the national literary histories (see below). Another highly useful, although specialized, volume is Ellen Rees, On the Margins: Nordic Women Modernists of the 1930s (Norwich, U.K.: Norvik Press, 2005), which offers groundbreaking studies of the works of Scandinavian women modernists. As indicated above, the best starting point for the study of a national literature is the country's volume in a series of literary histories published by the University of Nebraska Press under the general editorship ofSven Rossel, who also edited the Danish volume in the series, A HistoryofDanish Literature (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1992). When supplemented with two volumes edited by Marianne Stecher-Hansen, Danish Writers from the Reformation to Decadence, 15501900 (Boston: Gale, 2004) and Twentieth-Century Danish Writers (Boston: Gale, 1999), a substantial amount of reliable and well-presented information is available. Those who have an interest in the work of Søren Kierkegaard may want to make note of two excellent recent biographies, Joakim Garff, Søren Kierkegaard: A Biography (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2005), and Alastair Hannay, Kierkegaard: A Biography (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001). Those with an interest in Karen Blixen, aka Isak Dinesen, will benefit greatly from Susan Brantly's Understanding Isak Dinesen (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2002). Those with a particular interest in the literature of Finland will want to familiarize themselves with George C. Schoolfield, ed., A History of Finland's Literature (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1998), which discusses both the Finland-Swedish literature of Finland and the literature that is written in Finnish. Two very talented younger scholars currently working in Finnish studies in the United States are Thomas A. DuBois and Andrew Nestingen. The former has contributed to the study of the Kalevala as well as to that of the Finnish novel; his essays about Aino Kallas and Ilmari Kianto are of particular interest. Nestingen's article "Timely Subjects: Leena Krohn between Universal and Particular" is a major statement about an important current writer. As recognized by all who know the field, the grand old man of Finnish studies is the aforementioned George C. Schoolfield, whose books and articles are listed throughout the Finnish portion of the bibliography. Iceland has the smallest population of the Scandinavian countries, but its literature is arguably the oldest. Little emphasis is placed on medieval literature in this volume, however. Those interested in modern Icelandic literature will want to consult Patrick J. Stevens, ed., Icelandic Writers (Boston: Gale, 2004), which offers excellent essays on a substantial number of older and recent authors from Iceland. Norwegian literature can be studied in Harald S. Naess, ed., A History of Norwegian Literature (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1993), which can profitably be supplemented with Tanya Thresher, ed., Twentieth-Century Norwegian Writers (New York: Gale, 2004); this volume contains essays on many recent and current Norwegian writers. Those with an interest in the rhetorical dimension of literary texts may wish to consult Jan Sjavik, Reading for the Truth: Rhetorical Constructions in Norwegian Fiction (Christchurch, New Zealand: Cybereditions, 2004), in which chapters on a number of canonical Norwegian literary texts will be found. The literature of Sweden is presented by Lars Warme, the editor of A Historyof Swedish Literature (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1996). The essays in two volumes edited by Ann-Charlotte Gavel Adams, Twentieth-CenturySwedish Writers before World War II (Boston: Gale, 2002) and Twentieth-CenturySwedish Writers after World War II (Boston: Gale, 2002), are very informative. In addition to the college and university libraries listed above, excellent collections of Scandinavian literature and Scandinavian literary criticism are found at the Library of Congress. In general, most colleges and universities that offer instruction in Scandinavian studies will have helpful library collections. Internet resources will also be useful to many, although they are of varying quality and dependability. The National and University Library of Iceland can be found at while the Reykjavik Municipal Library is located at The Internet address for the journal Books from Finland is while the Swedish Book Review can be found at asp. Norla, a Norwegian agency that offers information about Norwegian literature abroad, has a stie at .. Much helpful information about Danish literature can be found at GENERAL SCANDINAVIAN LITERARY HISTORY AND CRITICISM DENMARK, bibliography FINLAND, bibliography ICELAND, bibliography NORWAY, bibliography SWEDEN, bibliography

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